The number of births in 2018 was 918,397 persons, a decrease by 27,668 from last year. The number is the lowest since 1899. The fertility rate was 1.42 and a decrease in three consecutive years. It is said that the fertility rate needed to keep population in Japan is 2.07. We can easily understand that the number of population will decrease in the future. Since children of baby boomer will be 40's in the near future, the trend to decrease the population will not be changed. On the other hand, the number of deaths in 2018 was 1,362,482 persons, the highest since World War II. Number of deaths increased in nine consecutive years. The population in Japan was about 0.12 billion as of October 1 2018.